Monday, 18 September 2017

Two Easy Rules-of-Thumb For Calculating a Three Degree Glide Slope



Two Easy Rules-of-Thumb For Calculating a Three-Degree Glide Slope

Two Easy Rules-of-Thumb For Calculating a Three-Degree Glide Slope
By Swayne Martin (Thanks to boldmethod for sharing)

Have you ever found yourself chasing the glideslope on an ILS approach? There's an easier way to do it.Groundspeed has a significant effect on descent rate, and there's a formula you can use to ballpark your feet per minute (FPM) descent, even before you get on glideslope.

One of the most important parts of instrument flying is getting ahead of the airplane. The following formulas are a great way to do just that. In many glass cockpit aircraft, wind vectors and ground track diamonds mean you'll have a easily visible references to use. GPS groundspeed will make the following equations extremely easy to use...
Boldmethod

Option 1: Multiply Your Groundspeed By 5
If you're flying your aircraft on a roughly 3 degree glideslope, try multiplying your groundspeed by 5 to estimate your descent rate. The result will be a FPM value for descent that you should target. As you capture the glideslope, make adjustments as necessary.



Option 2: Divide Groundspeed In Half, Add "0"Divide your groundspeed in half, add a zero to the end, and you'll have an approximate FPM of descent. This is another easy way to target an initial descent rate for a 3-degree precision approach, or even a VFR descent into an airport.



Both formulas leave you with the same result. Choosing which formula to use comes down to which mental math you're more comfortable with.
How Wind Affects Descent Rate

A tailwind on final will result in a higher groundspeed, thus requiring a higher descent rate to maintain glideslope. The opposite is true for headwinds. Let's take a look at a few examples:

Example 1: Headwind of 25 Knots, Final Approach Speed of 100 Knots Indicated Airspeed.


Example 2: Tailwind of 25 Knots, Final Approach Speed of 100 Knots.


Useful For More Than Just ILS Approaches

Looking for a good way to plan out your 3 degree glideslope? These formulas are great references for LPV approaches, LNAV+V, or even long VFR straight in approaches.
gc232

Have you used these formulas before? Tell us how you use them in the comments below.

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Thursday, 7 September 2017

The 10 Worst Distractions For Pilots

The 10 Worst Distractions For Pilots 
Thanks to Boldmethod for sharing...

Distractions inside the cockpit aren't just annoying, they're dangerous. Do everything you can to avoid these 10 distractions...
1) Traffic You Hear, But Can't See
There's nothing more unnerving than a traffic report close to your position. Your eyes instantly move outside the cockpit, scanning the sky for visual contact. While scanning outside is important, so is flying the airplane. Don't make an uncomfortable situation even worse by forgetting to manage flight parameters.
Boldmethod
2) "Bad" Passengers
Loud kids, passengers talking nonstop over the intercom, and seemingly endless questions are typical when flying people around in a small GA airplane. Remember the "isolate" switch is there for a reason!

Colin, however, is a good passenger. Bringing water for your pilots is never a bad thing!
Boldmethod
3) Back Seat Pilots
Pilots can be terrible passengers sometimes... Click here to find out why.
Boldmethod
4) Unfamiliar Aircraft
Can't find a switch? Don't know how to follow the checklist flow? What's that speed limitation?

None of these are questions that are good to be answering in the air. Before you hop into an unfamiliar airplane, make sure you've done some chair flying.


5) Unfamiliar Airspace
We didn't get our pilot's certificates to fly circles over our house all day long. Inevitably, you'll fly into unfamiliar and busy airspace somewhere in the country. Know the regulations, airspace dimensions, and procedures before you take off. Click Here to check out an airspace training course we developed to help you out.

6) Non-Essential Electronics
Limit the use of personal electronics as much as possible. If it's not flight-critical, ask yourself, "is this something that can wait until I'm on the ground?" Most likely, the answer is yes. If you're flying Part 91 with mounted cameras, have them set and filming before the engine starts. Don't touch them until you're on the ground.

7) Unnecessary Radio Congestion

There's nothing worse than a radio hog. It's distracting for other pilots that might be in a critical phase of flight or need to make an announcement. Avoid unnecessary radio conversations, or switch to a discreet frequency... Give 123.45 a try!

8) Cluttered Avionics
De-clutter your avionics so only relevant information is shown. Too much clutter could result in you missing something important.
Boldmethod
9) Foreign Object Debris
FOD, or foreign object debris is distracting and dangerous. Quite a few accidents have been caused by loose items in the cockpit getting jammed into flight controls.

10) Open Doors And Windows
As you accelerate down the runway, you notice the loud rush of air entering the cabin. Somewhere, a door or window is open. If you weren't able to abort the takeoff or can't shut it in-flight, circle and land to fix the problem. Could an open baggage door take down an airplane? In this accident, it's most likely the primary cause.

Boldmethod
What else has distracted you? Tell us in the comments below.

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Tuesday, 22 August 2017

Why Every Pilot Should Practice Power-Off 180 Landings



Why Every Pilot Should Practice Power-Off 180 Landings 
Thanks to Boldmethod for sharing...

It's unlikely you'll ever have an engine failure abeam the aim point markers on downwind...so why are power-off 180s so important to practice?
What Exactly Is A 'Power-Off 180?'

Performing a power-off 180 is just what it sounds like. Abeam an aiming point on downwind, engine power is cut to idle (at or below 1000 feet AGL per ACS standards), and you maneuver to land as close to that preselected point as possible. Most pilots pitch for best glide speed, at least initially, to improve chances of making the runway point.

While it's not usually a required maneuver for private pilots, it's a great maneuver to practice for any pilot. The ACS has the following standards for maneuver completion: "Touch down within -0/+200 feet from the specified touchdown point with no side drift, minimum float, and with the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway centerline."
Boldmethod

But this maneuver doesn't realistically depict what to expect during an actual engine failure and emergency landing, so why are they so important? Bear with me...
Simulated Landing Points

Unless you fly in North Dakota, you can't just land anywhere. Water, forests, and densely populated areas make emergency landings tough. While power-off 180s may not accurately depict real-life landing conditions, they do hone in the importance of landing on a pre-selected spot.

Your goal during a power-off emergency landing is a descent to landing following the format of a traffic pattern. Straight-in power-off approaches are dangerous, because you start farther away from your landing point, and it's difficult to judge glide and sink rate.
Boldmethod
Wind Correction

Headwinds, tailwinds, and crosswinds provide unique challenges when flying power-off 180s. Unlike a normal approach, you don't have the backup of adding power to adjust for poorly anticipated wind conditions. The power-off 180 is the perfect way to learn how to control your descent path, while adjusting to compensate for wind.

Example 1: As you fly your downwind, you notice a high groundspeed with a corresponding tailwind. As you pull the power back, you'll need to make a base turn towards the runway sooner than normal. You'll be fighting a headwind and low groundspeed the whole way in on final.


Example 2: On downwind, you experience a headwind. As the power is brought to idle, extend your downwind before making a base turn to prevent over-shooting your landing spot.


Adjusting for differing wind directions and speeds takes practice, and is one of the biggest reasons practicing power-off 180s is so important. Over time, you'll get a feel for how long you need to wait before making a base turn.

No matter the situation, improving this skill set important for any pilot.
Increasing Your Descent Rate

Need to lose altitude? Try entering a forward slip. In most airplanes, you'll add full rudder in the direction away from the wind, while simultaneously using ailerons to maintain safe bank and directional control. This maneuver exposes a larger portion of the airplane's fuselage to the free air stream, resulting in significantly increased parasite drag. You'll be able to descend quickly, and get back on glide path.

The best way to use forward slips in this case? Treat them as step-downs. Enter a forward slip for a few seconds, lose altitude, exit the slip, and re-consider your glidepath to the runway. If it looks like you'll need to lose more altitude, enter the slip again. Repeat. This way, you'll reduce your odds of undershooting the runway.
panhandler1956

S-Turns are another way to increase descent rates for landing. By turning, you'll simultaneously increase ground track, while lift is directed horizontally. Both factors result in a greater descent compared to straight-and-level flight. Be careful not to over-bank or use s-turns as your only way of losing altitude. They're generally not the best option, because you de-stabilize your approach.


Each of these maneuvers exemplify another important lesson learned from power-off 180s. If you're caught in a situation where altitude loss is necessary, these skills will pay off in a big way.
Configuration

When should you add flaps? It all comes down to descent path. If you feel that you're high, start adding flaps. But avoid putting flaps to full right away. Like the forward slip, use flaps incrementally, to ensure you don't overshoot or undershoot your target.

There's nothing worse than adding full flaps, only to discover you didn't actually need that high of a descent angle and risk undershooting your landing point. And once you add flaps, don't take them out, especially down low. Retracting flaps with no power results in a significant sink rate - and possibly more than you can recover from, even with power. Don't add flaps, and especially full flaps, until you're absolutely certain you'll make your landing point.

Ground Track

It's not all about how the plane is set up or which maneuvers you choose to fly. Your ground track directly affects your descent path.

Squared turns from downwind-base-final result in more time spent in the air, steeper turns, and more altitude loss. Making a continuous turn, or nearly continuous, typically sets you up for a better final approach.

Speed Control

Throughout the entire power-off 180, speed control is key. As power is brought to idle, pitch for best glide speed. It'll give you the best shot of making the runway, and helps you judge your best glide ratio. Flying too fast or too slow means risking gliding distance.

Be careful when flying over approach speed as you get close to the runway. You'll risk floating and missing your touchdown point entirely.

Differing Glide Ratios

Every airplane glides differently at idle power. Some fly like a glider, and some like a brick. Practicing power-off 180s in a variety of airplanes demonstrates the importance of understanding your airplane's aerodynamics.

That way, when you're ready to fly a new bird, you'll feel much more comfortable preparing for emergencies.


imgur

A lot goes into flying a perfect power-off 180. Getting proficient in this maneuver don't just apply to engine-out situations, it helps you plan out any approach to landing.

What else is important about flying power-off 180s? Tell us in the comments below.


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If Your Engine Fails, Should You Fly Best Glide Or Minimum Sink

If Your Engine Fails, Should You Fly Best Glide Or Minimum Sink?

Thanks to Boldmethod for sharing...



When you think about power off landings, there are probably a lot of things that go through your head, like finding an airport within gliding distance, finding an off-field landing site if there aren't any airports, and last-ditch efforts to get your engine running again before you're out of altitude.

In 2013, there were thirteen fatal accidents related to power off landings, according to the NTSB. You're faced with some very serious decisions during a power off landing. But after you've run your checklists and determined your engine isn't coming back to life, handling a power-off landing really comes down to three simple things: aviate, navigate, and communicate.
Maximizing Glide Range, Or Time Aloft?

The first question you need to answer in a power-off landing scenario is this: do you want to maximize the distance you can glide, or do you want to maximize the amount of time you can stay aloft?

Most often you want to maximize the distance you can glide, at least initially, as you set up for a power off landing. The airspeed you want to pitch for is best glide speed.

No matter what aircraft you fly, best glide speed is usually published in the aircraft POH, and it's the best airspeed to start with as you're setting up for a power off landing.

Best glide gives you the best glide angle as you drift down, which means that if you maintain best glide all the way to the ground, you'll travel the furthest distance possible without power.


There's something you need to keep in mind about best glide, though. Like most airspeeds in the POH, best glide is calculated at max gross weight. And as weight decreases, so does the speed that will maximize your distance. The change is minor, but if you're trying to get the most out of your glide and you're lighter than max gross weight, a slightly slower speed may help you out.
Maximizing Your Time Aloft

If you want to stay in the air for the longest time possible, you want to fly at the minimum sink speed. Unfortunately, there's a problem with that. The minimum sink speed is rarely published for powered aircraft. But there is a way you can figure it out: try it in your plane.

Minimum sink is always slower than best glide, because it's the point on the power required curve where the least amount of power is required. Keep in mind, though, you're going quite a bit slower than your best glide speed, and that can significantly impact your glide range.


Unless you have a good landing site below you, and you're trying to maximize your time aloft to troubleshoot the engine and talk to ATC, minimum sink isn't necessarily going to be as helpful as sticking with best glide will be.
Selecting A Landing Site: Airport

Once you've accomplished the "aviate" part of the flight by configuring the airplane, and pitching/trimming for best glide, your next step is to "navigate" and find a place to land.

When it comes to landing sites, you really have two choices. Land at an airport, or land somewhere else. Typically, you first choice is to land at an airport, if you can.

If you have GPS on board, whether it's panel mounted or an EFB like ForeFlight, the "Nearest Airport" function gives you a quick list of nearby airports.

Once you pick an airport and go direct to it, you'll know your distance to the runway. The next question is: can you get there? That's where some quick mental math comes in.

Most GA airplanes, whether they're a Cessna 172, or a Cirrus SR-22, glide about 1 1/2 miles for every 1,000' of altitude.

So for example, if you're 4,000' above the ground, you'll be able to glide about 6 nautical miles before your wheels are on the ground. You should always look at your POH maximum glide chart, but if you don't have it handy during your next engine failure, the 1 1/2 miles per 1,000' feet will at least get you close.

If you have ForeFlight's new "Glide Advisor" feature, that can tell you even faster what airports you're within gliding distance of.

Continue Reading...
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Monday, 7 August 2017

6 Mindfulness Tips for Millennials

6 Mindfulness Tips for Millennials ‹ The Mindful Mermaid ‹ Reader — WordPress.com
Thanks to Alex CoteThe Mindful Mermaid for sharing...

Many of us could use some added mindfulness into our daily lives—especially us millennials.

We are the instant-gratification seeking generation that grew up with the digital age. We value self-fulfillment and social impact. And yet, it’s so easy for us to feel overwhelmed and under pressure.

Let’s take a step back and see what simple steps millennials can do to realign our selves in order to feel valued and content.



Before we get started, let’s set the record straight for what mindfulness even is. Clearly, you’ve come to right place (hence the name of my blog).

Mindful.org defines mindfulness as, “the basic human ability to be fully present, aware of where we are and what we’re doing, and not overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us.”

For simplicity, mindfulness can be broken down into three steps:
Learning to be more present
Become aware with your inner self
Letting go of judgment of oneself and those around you.

It’s less about being perfectly calm and focused all the time as it is about awareness.

I’ve tailored a series of simple steps that I’ve found are both effective and relevant for our generation. 6 simple steps to living more mindfully as a millennial starts here:

Learn to unplug from the digital world and focus on the present

Do you notice that your computer runs a lot slower when your internet browser has 20+ tabs open? Same thing goes with our brains. It’s time you close some of the tabs open in your head, and start focusing on one thing at a time.

It’s estimated that millennials spend at least 18 hours a day online. We’re constantly managing multiple tasks at once and thinking about what’s coming next.

We need to learn to turn the digital world OFF. That also means putting our brain into airplane mode and focusing on the moment in front of us.

When you’re with your friends, be with your friends. When you’re at work, be at work. Look up from your phone and notice the trees changing color on your walk home. And believe me, every moment of your day does not need to be on Snapchat.

Stop focusing on what to come, and what you’re missing out on somewhere else. Learn to just be in the now.

Get a hobby, other than Netflix...
http://mindfulmermaid.com/2017/07/11/6-mindfulness-tips-for-millennials/

Inspiration – Mindfulness

Inspiration – Mindfulness

“Ultimately I see mindfulness as a love affair – with life, with reality and imagination, with the beauty of your own being, with your heart and body and mind, and with the world.”

– Jon Kabat Zinn



What an inspiring way to describe mindfulness. Life is beautiful.

In the beginning it takes practice, and yes, some discipline to bring mindful awareness to our thoughts and feelings. Many of us will choose to sit in meditation as a daily practice, and focus on our breath. This takes time and willpower. Which is also part of the mindful practice.

Yet, ultimately, it isn’t about the place we are practicing in, or what we want to gain from meditation. Its about opening ourselves up to being aware of every aspect of our life. Our actions, thoughts, beliefs, speech. Our body and breath. Our attitudes and how we relate to others.

Connecting to the world around us and within us.

It becomes a love affair with the world and our being-ness.

Namaste

Thanks to Val Boyko for sharing...



Val BoykoFind Your Middle Ground

Inspiration – Mindfulness

Inspiration – Mindfulness

“Ultimately I see mindfulness as a love affair – with life, with reality and imagination, with the beauty of your own being, with your heart and body and mind, and with the world.”

– Jon Kabat Zinn



What an inspiring way to describe mindfulness. Life is beautiful.

In the beginning it takes practice, and yes, some discipline to bring mindful awareness to our thoughts and feelings. Many of us will choose to sit in meditation as a daily practice, and focus on our breath. This takes time and willpower. Which is also part of the mindful practice.

Yet, ultimately, it isn’t about the place we are practicing in, or what we want to gain from meditation. Its about opening ourselves up to being aware of every aspect of our life. Our actions, thoughts, beliefs, speech. Our body and breath. Our attitudes and how we relate to others.

Connecting to the world around us and within us.

It becomes a love affair with the world and our being-ness.

Namaste

Thanks to Val Boyko for sharing...



Val BoykoFind Your Middle Ground

Thursday, 27 July 2017

What are the effects of nature on our health

What are the effects of nature on our health
Thanks to "The Conscious Insider" for sharing...


Regardless of our age or gender, we all love nature. Nature has many healthy effects on the Human body. Whatever that you see, hear and think not only affects your mood but also your immune, nervous and endocrine system’s way of working.

Have you ever noticed how just looking at a beautiful natural picture gives you a slight change in the mood?

Well that is because naturally Humans find natural things engrosing.

If you are in an unplesant environment then it can make you stressful, anxious, sad and negative mindset. Because of this you can have high blood pressure, high heart rate and high muscle tension and it aso suppresses you immune system.

Nature has the exact opposite effects of that.

A book I read named Healing Gardens had a study cited in it which stated that two-third of people prefer to retreat to a natural surrounding when they are stressful or anxious.


Healing effects of nature

Research done in schools, hospitals and offices have found that even having a simple plant in a room can improve mental and physical health. Just viewing scenes of nature, reduces anger, fear, and stress and increases pleasant feelings. Being exposed to nature can make you feel much better emotionally and not only that, it can reduce muscle tension, heart rate, blood pressure and even lower the production of stress hormones.

A study was done by physician Robert Ulrich on a group of patients undergoing gall bladder surgery. During the surgery some patients had a view of nature and some had the view of a wall. The patients who had the view of nature tolerated pain better, had less negative thoughts and spent less time in the hospital. Many other similar type of studies have also been conducted.

Being in nature can change your mood from depressed and stressed to calm and balanced. Many other studies by Ulrich, Kim, and Cervinka show that time in nature or scenes of nature are associated with a positive mood, and psychological wellbeing, meaningfulness, mindfullness, vitality and also improve your ability to pay attention.

Amazingly, nature aslo bonds people together! According to a series of field studies conducted by Kuo and Coley at the Human-Environment Research Lab, time spent in nature connects us to each other and the larger world. Another study at the University of Illinois suggests that residents in Chicago public housing who had trees and green space around their building reported knowing more people, having stronger feelings of unity with neighbors, being more concerned with helping and supporting each other, and having stronger feelings of belonging than tenants in buildings without trees. In addition to this greater sense of community, they had a reduced risk of street crime, lower levels of violence and aggression between domestic partners, and a better capacity to cope with life’s demands, especially the stresses of living in poverty.

This experience of connection may be explained by studies that used fMRI to measure brain activity. When participants viewed nature scenes, the parts of the brain associated with empathy and love lit up, but when they viewed urban scenes, the parts of the brain associated with fear and anxiety were activated. It appears as though nature inspires feelings that connect us to each other and our environment.

So limit your time on screens and indoors and go outside! See the real world, experience the beatuy of our planet and build real connections.

Besides all this, nature also does these to you:
Builds sharper thinking and creativity
Improves short term memory
Restore mental energy
Reduce inflammation
Better vision
Reduced risk of early death
Imrproves immune system
And even possible anti-cancer effects!

Love, laugh, Live and lead a healty life!

Thanks for sharing...
Kartik ThakurThe Conscious Insider

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

The Sounds of Nature ‹ snapshotsincursive

The Sounds of Nature - snapshotsincursive.
Thanks for sharing.



“The three great elemental

sounds in nature are

the sound of rain,

the sound of wind

in a primeval wood, and

the sound of outer ocean

on a beach.”  ~ Henry Beston

Saturday, 1 July 2017

F-22 Raptor vertical takeoff

9 Things That Can Be Easily Overlooked During Preflight



9 Things That Can Be Easily Overlooked During Preflight 
(Thanks to Boldmethod for sharing)

1) Mandatory inspections:
It's important to verify that all required inspections are met for the aircraft you're flying. You don't want to compromise the safety of you and your passengers by flying an aircraft outside of its inspection windows, and you don't want to have to explain why you flew an aircraft outside of mandatory inspections to the FAA, either.
2) Required documents:
At the start of each preflight, make sure your aircraft has all the required documents on board. Remember the acronym ARROW which stands for Airworthiness, Registration, Radio Station License, Operating Manual, and Weight and Balance.
3) Fuel quantity:
Never rely solely on the fuel quantity indicators. Make sure you visually check your fuel tanks to make sure you have enough gas for your flight.
4) Pitot tube drain hole
You should always make sure that the pitot tube is open, as well as the drain hole. If you end up flying through precipitation, you want to make sure that your pitot tube is draining properly, so your indicated airspeed isn't affected.
5) Landing gear condition:
Instead of skimming over the tire and saying "It looks good to me!", make sure you actually check that the tire has proper inflation and that the tread isn't worn down. It's also important to make sure that the brake pads are intact, and that there isn't any hydraulic fluid leaking.
6) Bottom of the fuselage:
While it may seem unneeded, it helps you make sure there aren't any dents on the bottom of the aircraft, tail strikes, or debris from prop blast. You also want to make sure there isn't any excessive oil dripping, and that the avionics antennas are still intact before you go.

7) Contaminants on the wings:
When it's below freezing, it can be easy to overlook contaminants on the wing like frost and clear ice, which both have adverse effects to your aircraft's performance.

8) The propeller:
Take your time to do a thorough inspection of the propeller. Make sure that both the leading and trailing edges of the propeller are smooth, and don't have nicks or cracks. In addition to the visual inspection, you can also perform an audible test on composite props. Gently tap on the propeller from the hub to the propeller tip with a metal coin. If the tapping sounds hollow or dead, your prop could be delaminated, and you should have a mechanic check it out.
9) Fuel filler caps:
Double check them before you fly! If they're not properly attached, you could risk fuel leakage from the top of the wing, which could make for a bad day.
jay-jerry
What else is easy to miss on preflight? Tell us in the comments below.

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